Development Policy and International Relations
Let started from the President George W. Bush in his 2002 State of the Union Address by including North Korea in the “Axis of Evil.” Bush indicated the governments that he accused of supporting terrorism and seeking weapons of mass destruction namely Iran, Iraq and North Korea. At that time, North Korea was called “a regime arming with missiles and weapons of mass destruction, while starving its citizens.” To read full speech, please click to visit [the State of the Union Address].
later that year the CIA concluded that Pyongyang was pursuing a uranium enrichment program that violated the spirit of an Agreed Framework Between The United States of America And The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. The talk was held in Geneva from September 23 to October 21, 1994, to negotiate an overall resolution of the nuclear issue on the Korean Peninsula. To read full text, please click to visit [the Arms Control Association].
Subsequently, North Korean offended the program and withdrew from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) in 2003. The IAEA inspectors were forced to leave the country and the tensions were heightened in March 2003.
The first Six-Party Talks was introduced in August 2003 aiming to end Nuclear Program from the Korea Peninsula in a peaceful manner to ensure peace and stability in Korean Peninsula and Northeast Asia at large. The Six-Party Talks is the negotiating process involving from People’s Republic of China, United States, Japan, Russia, North and South Korea. On 19 September 2005, a Joint Statement of Fourth Round of Six-Party Talks was released in Beijing by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of People’s Republic of China. The Joint Statement is consisting of six paragraphs which Six-Party briefly agreed to support denuclearization of Korean Peninsula in a Peaceful manner and returning to NPT, to abide by the purposes and principles of UN Charter, to promote economic cooperation in the fields of energy, trade and investment, and so on. To read the full text, please click to visit the [U.S. Department of State to read full Joint Statement of Fourth Round of Six-Party Talks.]
Under Kim Jong-Un, North Korea successfully tested a long-range missile launch in late 2012 and underground nuclear tested in early 2013. The world leader responded with condemnation. United Nations Secretary General says North Korean nuclear weapon test is a grave violation of Security Council resolutions. Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said his government would “consider every possible way to address this issue.” Beijing and Moscow have also urged North Korea to abandon its program and return to talks. As well, Chairman of ASEAN issued a statement to express concern and call for Six-Party Talks. To read full text of ASEAN Chairman Statement on the underground nuclear test by DPRK, please click [here]. However, some analysts say the dialogue is unlikely to resume soon.
According to BBC news, DPRK said it had ordered artillery and rocket units into “combat posture” to prepare to target US bases in Hawaii, Guam and the US mainland. Amid high tension, a military hotline with the South Korea was cutting . While the situation is currently unpredictable, some analysts believe Pyongyang may be trying to force the US and others into negotiations, with all-out war unlikely, says the BBC’s Lucy Williamson in Seoul.
“Under the situation where a war may break out any moment, there is no need to keep up North-South military communications,” a senior North Korean military official was quoted by KCNA news agency as telling the South before the line was severed. As well, US Pentagon spokesman George Little said on Tuesday that North Korea’s threats “followed a pattern designed to raise tensions” and that North Korea would “achieve nothing by these threats“, according to BBC news.
Regarding to Six-Party Talks, CFR’s Snyder says the Six Party Talks and other regional efforts preceding it failed because the participating states “placed their own immediate priorities and concerns above the collective need to halt North Korea’s nuclear program.” While Japan and the United States have consistently pushed for strong sanctions in response to North Korean weapons testing, China, South Korea, and Russia have traditionally settled for less stringent sanctions out of fear that a sudden toppling of the regime would trigger major refugee influxes. Pyonyang’s most recent provocations have pushed boundaries, however, and all three ultimately backed the March 2013 UN sanctions.
In the article by Jayshree Bajoria on The Six-Party Talks on North Korea’s Nuclear Program, the Six Party Talks have failed to denuclearize North Korea and have elicited few results. Several experts think North Korea is now determined to be recognized as a nuclear weapons state. Indeed, in 2012, the North Korean leadership included a new preamble to its constitution that describes the country as a “nuclear state and a militarily powerful state that is indomitable.”